Examining the Effects of R&D and Human Capital on Export of Iran


Volume 3, Issue 4, Number 7, Pages 100-115, Published Online October 20, 2015

Full-Text PDF


Arash Ketabforoush Badri, Ramin Yahyavi, Mostafa Pourebrahim


 Export for any country as the driving force of the economy, is a factor for progress and has many advantages. Export also acts as a channel for technology transfer and knowledge to differentiate products and improve product design ideas. This is an important economic factor, which provides opportunities for the exploitation of successful researches, and increases the incentives for investment in R&D and encourages technical innovation and the development of markets. For this purpose, this study tries to investigate the effects of R&D and human capital on export of Iran in the 1975-2012 period using OLS methods. The results show that R&D has a significant and positive effect on export, so by 1 percent increase of R&D, export increased 0/33 percent. Also, human capital has a positive impact on export. It can be said that by 1 percent increase in the human capital, export increased 0/58 percent.


R&D, Human Capital, Export, OLS.


 Atkin, D.(2012), “Endogenous Skill Acquisition and Export Manufacturing in Mexico”, Unpublished manuscript.
Aysan, F. A. & Selim Y. (2007), “Investigation into the Determinants of Turkish Export-Boom in the 2000s”, The Journal of International Trade and Diplomacy, Vol. 1, No. 2, pp159-202.
Azimi, R.(2000), “Effect of non-oil exports on economic growth”, Journal of Planning and Budget, 8, 9, pp56-57(In Persian).
Bazdar Ardabili, P.(2011), “Analyze the role of R & D on the development of the transport sector in Iran using endogenous and exogenous growth patterns”, transportation Bulletin, Issue II, summer, 115-132(In Persian).
Blanchard, E. & Olney,W.W. (2015), “Globalization and Human Capital Investment: How Export Composition Drives Educational Attainment”, Available at :http:www. web.williams.edu/Economics/wp/OlneyExportsandEducation.pdf.
Chen. C., & Gupta.R. (2006). “An Investigation of Openness and Economic Growth, Using Panel Estimation”, Department of Economics Working Paper Series.
Cheung, K. Y. & Lin, P. (2004), “Spillover effects of FDI on innovation in China: Evidence from the peovicial data”, China Economic Review, 15, pp25-44.
Collinson, S. (2000), “Knowledge networks for innovation in small Scottish software firms”, Entrepreneurship and Regional Development, 12(3), pp 217-244.
Dulleck.U. & Foster, N. 2008, “Imoported Equipment, Human Capital and Economic Growth in Development Countrey”, Economic Analysi Policy, Vol. 38, no. 2.
Faramarzpour Darzini, B., & Khandan, N.(2009), “The role of R&D department of entrepreneurship and small and medium business value”, Journal of Technology, No. 14, pp 34-46(In Persian).
Greene, W.H. (2002) Econometric analysis, New Jersey, Prentice Hall.
Grossman, G.M. &Helpman, E. (1991), “Quality Ladders in the Theory of Growth”, Review of Economic Studies, Vol.193, pp43-62.
Guellec, D., & De la Potterie, B.V.P. (2004), “From R&D to Productivity Growth: Do the Institutional Setting and the Source of Funds of R&D Matter?”, Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, 66(3), pp353-378.
Ha, J. & Howitt, P. (2007), “Accounting for Trends in Productivity and R&D: A Schumpeterian Critique of Semi-Endogenous Growth Theory”, Journal of Money Credit and Banking, 39(4), pp733-774.
Heath, R. & Mobarak, A.M,(2015), “Manufacturing growth and the lives of Bangladeshi women”, Journal of Development Economics, 115, pp1–15.
Herzer, D. (2005), “Manufacturing Exports, Mining Exports and Growth: Co-integration and Causality Analysis for Chile”, German Institute for Economic Research.
Hickman, D. C. & Olney, W.W. (2011), “Globalization and Investment in Human Capital”, Industrial & Labor Relations Review, Volume 64, Number 4, July, pp654-672.
Hunt, R. M., Nakamura, L. (2007), The Democratization of U.S. Research and Development after 1980. Mimeo, Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia.
Konya, L. (2006), “Exports and Growth: Granger Causality Analysis on OECD Countries with a Panel Data Approach”, Economic Modeling, Vol. 23, No. 6, pp 978-992.
Long, J. Scott, Trivedi, & Pravin, K. (1993). Some Specification Tests for the Linear Regression Model, In Bollen, Kenneth A.; Long, J. Scott. Testing Structural Equation Models. London: Sage, 66–110.
Lopez, E. & G. Serrano. (2005), “Complementarity between Human Capital and Trade in Regional Technological Progress”, Regional Quantities Analysis Research Group, University of Barcelona.
Madsen, J.B. (2008), “Semi-endogenous versus Schumpeterian Growth Models: Testing the Knowledge Production Function Using International Data”, Journal of Economic Growth, 13(1), pp1-26.
Munch, R. J. & Skaksen R. J. (2006), “Human Capital and Wages in Exporting Firms”, Institute for the Study of Labor IZA, Discussion Paper, No. 2409.
Oster, E. & Steinberg, B.M.(2013), “Do IT Service Centers Promote School Enrollment? Evidence from India”, Journal of Development Economics, Vol 104, Issue 3, pp123-135.
Ping, L.& Qingchang, Z.H. (2008), “The effects of technological spillover through FDI and import trade on China’s innovation”, School of Economy of Shandong University of Technology, www.seiofbluemountain.com/search/detail.php?id=3948.
Puga, D. Trefler, D. (2010), “Wake up and smell the ginseng: Innovation trade and the rise of incremental innovation in low-wage countries”, Journal of Development Economics, 91(1), pp 64-76.
Pourebrahim, F. & Esmaeeli, A.(2010), “Evaluation of agricultural exports by using trade”, research and development of agricultural economy (agricultural science), 2,41 (4), pp 447-454(In Persian).
Rodwell, J. J. & Teo, S. T. T. (2003), “The Need to Accumulate Human Capital across Levels of Export Intensity: Activating Resources that are Increasingly Difficult to Mobilise”, Research and Practice in Human Resource Management, Vol. 11, No. 2, pp 17-31.
Sameti, M., Jalayi, A., & Sadegi, Z.(2004), “The effects of globalization on the pattern of import demand of Iran (1959-2002)”, Economic Research Journal, 11 and 12, the spring and summer, pp1-16(In Persian).
Shahabadi, A. & Havaej, S.(2011), “The effects of technology spillovers through foreign direct investment and imports on innovation”, the idea of Economic Research Quarterly, Winter, pp 1-20(In Persian).
Shirinbaksh, S. & Khansari, Z (2009) Eviews applications in econometrics, Tehran, Bazargani Publishin(In Persian).
Souri, A.(2012) Econometrics with applications Eviews, Hamadan, Nashre Elm Publishing(In Persian).
Teixeira, A.C. & Fortuna, N. (2004), Human Capital, Trade and Longrun Productivity, Testing the Technological Absorption Hypothesis for the Portuguese Economy (1960-2001), CEMPRE, Faculdade de Economia.
Ulku, H. (2005), “An Empirical Analysis of R&D-Based Growth Models”, Mimeo, Manchester University.
Van Den Berg, H. (2001), Economic Growth and Development, New York: McGraw Hill Ltd.
Vogiatzoglou, K. (2009), “Determinants of Export Specialization in ICT Products: A Cross-Country Analysis”, International Network for Economic Research, Working Paper, No. 3.
Wooldridge, J. M. (2013), Introductory Econometrics–A Modern Approach, Thomson South-Western, 304–308.
Zabihi, M.R & Zavvari, M.E.(2011), “Comparison of indicators of research and development in Iran, South Korea, Malaysia and Turkey (in 25 years)”, Available at: http://www.na3er.ir/. (In Persian).
Zachariadis, M. (2004), “R&D-induced Growth in the OECD”, Review of Development Economics 8(3), pp 423- 439.


No comments

Be the first one to leave a comment.

Post a Comment



Events 2016


Events 2016